Glaucoma is a condition that causes damage to your eye's optic nerve and gets worse over time. It's often linked to a buildup of pressure inside your eye. Glaucoma tends to be inherited and may not show up until later in life.
The increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve, which transmits images to your brain. If the damage continues, glaucoma can lead to permanent vision loss. Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness within a few years.
Cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of your eye. For people who have cataracts, seeing through cloudy lenses is a bit like looking through a frosty or fogged-up window. Clouded vision caused by cataracts can make it more difficult to read, drive a car (especially at night) or see the expression on a friend's face.
Most cataracts develop slowly and don't disturb your eyesight early on. But with time, cataracts will eventually interfere with your vision.
At first, stronger lighting and eyeglasses can help you deal with cataracts. But if impaired vision interferes with your usual activities, you might need cataract surgery. Fortunately, cataract surgery is generally a safe, effective procedure.
Астигматизм в переводе с латыни — отсутствие (фокусной) точки. Астигматизм возникает вследствие неправильной (не сферичной) формы роговицы (реже — хрусталика). В нормальном состоянии роговица и хрусталик здорового глаза имеют ровную сферическую поверхность. При астигматизме их сферичность нарушена. Она обладает разной кривизной по разным направлениям. Соответственно, при астигматизме в разных меридианах поверхности роговицы присутствует разная преломляющая сила и изображение предмета при прохождении световых лучей через такую роговицу получается с искажениями.
The cornea has unmyelinated nerve endings sensitive to touch, temperature and chemicals; a touch of the cornea causes an involuntary reflex to close the eyelid. Because transparency is of prime importance, the healthy cornea does not have or need blood vessels within it. Instead, oxygen dissolves in tears and then diffuses throughout the cornea to keep it healthy. Similarly, nutrients are transported via diffusion from the tear fluid through the outside surface and the aqueous humour through the inside surface. Nutrients also come via neurotrophins supplied by the nerves of the cornea. In humans, the cornea has a diameter of about 11.5 mm and a thickness of 0.5–0.6 mm in the center and 0.6–0.8 mm at the periphery. Transparency, avascularity, the presence of immature resident immune cells, and immunologic privilege makes the cornea a very special tissue.
Blepharoplasty, also known as eyelid surgery, is a surgical procedure that corrects eyelids that are sagging or drooping. Because the skin of the eyelid is thinner than other areas of the face, it tends to show the first signs of aging. Eyelids that sag or droop can affect your peripheral vision and make daily activities more difficult.
A blepharoplasty will remove excess skin and fat and tighten the muscles and tissues of the eyelid. It eliminates the skin that is drooping into the visual field and improves peripheral vision.
Oculoplastic surgery is a general term used to represent a variety of procedures that involve the orbit, eyelids, tear ducts, and the face. Ocular reconstructive surgery, aesthetic eyelid surgery, facial plastic surgery, and cosmetic procedures fall into this category.
Some types of oculoplastic surgery are considered both medically necessary and cosmetic. For instance, certain eyelid and periocular issues can affect a person’s appearance as well as their vision, eye comfort, and eye health.
Before you can undergo such surgery, your surgeon will check with your insurance company to determine whether your procedure is covered. An oculoplastic surgeon is an ophthalmologist who has completed additional training that focuses on the management of eyelid abnormalities, tearing problems, and orbital disease.